Schema Therapy for Children & Adolescents (ST-CA)

Modes & Mode Work


Jacob, G.,,& Arntz, A. (2011). Schematherapie in der Praxis. Weinheim: Beltz

Loose, C. (2010). Schema Therapy for Children: Proposal of Modification. Posterbeitrag bei ISST 2010, Berlin

Rafaeli E., Bernstein, D.P. , Young, J.E. (2011). Schema Therapy. The CBT Distinctive Features  Series. New York: Routledge.

Roediger, E. (2009). Praxis der Schematherapie. Grundlagen, Anwendung, Perspektiven. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag .

Schema modes are emotional states at a given point of time, triggered by life situations the person is oversensitive to ("emotional buttons").  While these states are each associated with a schema, it is not possible to allocate them 1-to-1. A schemarepresents a trait, and a mode is comparable with a state.






















There are 4 main types of modes I-II-III-IV (including subgroups A,B,C ...):

I. Child modes: „The little ...[name of the child]“                          

II. Demanding and punishing modes: „The critical ... [name of the child]“

III. Immature coping modes: „Emergency-... [name of the child] “

IV. Clever-mode: „The clever ...[name of the child] “

In therapy with adults this mode is called the healthy adult mode. Of course, a child is not an adult, therefore we renamed this healthy mode “the clever ..“ (name of the child).

Important: It is recommended to avoid talking of „parent modes“, because a conflict of loyalty could occur hindering the child from building up a trusting relationship to the therapist.






Textfeld: The figure above shows that different schemas can have similar effects, as demonstrated with the help of ice cubes, splashes of water or waves. In order to keep the effect on a low emotional level (e.g., rage is not wanted), the child uses different coping modes. The challenge is to find an acceptable compromise between the different modes (see below). Unfortunately, the child chooses modes that release the tension for a short time. In the long run, the modes chosen lead to dysfunctional patterns of behavior (see below for further explanation).

Fig. 1: Dynamic Mode-Model, compare Loose (2010); based on Roediger (2009)


Poster C. Loose et al. (ISST 2010, Berlin): Schema Therapy for Children: Proposal of Modification  Download

Textfeld: Homepage created by: C. Loose ©; last update 12.06.2019; Homepage seit 3/2011
Textfeld: Schemas resemble ice cubes which are unpleasant to hold in your hand.